Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

How to Get a 700 Plus Credit Score With One Small Key Ingredient

Everyone wants a great credit score, but sometimes you wonder if it is possible. If you are wondering how to get a 700 plus credit score, then you are in luck. This article will help you understand your credit better, and show you how to get awesome credit!

First, it’s important to understand what makes up your credit score. There are three major credit bureaus that potential creditors will use to get info about you. These are Equifax, Experian, and Transunion. These credit bureaus collect info about you from those you have borrowed money from. The more times you pay your creditors on time, the better your score. They also measure the amount of debt that you have and how much of that is revolving debt (think credit cards). Too much revolving debt will lower your overall score.

Generally speaking a credit score above 700 is considered to be very good. This will entitle you to the best rates and the most respect. But, the holy grail of good great, a credit score above 700, is made all the more important in the credit driven society that we live in. A good credit score can mean that you can afford a bigger house or that great car you’ve wanted. It also gives you options and freedom.

Many people want to know how to get a 700 plus credit score. It is not as difficult as you might imagine. Even if you have made credit mistakes in the past, you can learn how to get it where you want. Start by getting on a reasonable budget. This allows to the freedom to allocate your funds properly so that you know that the money is there to pay your bills. And want to know the biggest secret to get your credit score above 700? Pay those bills on time! Anti-climatic, I know, but that is seriously it.

Another tip on how to get a 700 plus credit score is to keep your balances on your credit cards well under the limit. It is a good idea to owe less than half of your limit on your cards, and pay them regularly. When you are maxed out or even close on your cards, this signals to creditors that you are having financial trouble.

Finally, try not to apply for new credit if you don’t need it. Those store credit cards that promise to give you ten or fifteen percent off of your purchases may be tempting, but in the long run they can cost you precious points on your score. Limiting new credit inquiries is a key element in how to get a 700 plus credit score.

If you are looking for ways to skyrocket your credit, keep these tips in mind. If you keep to your budget, make your payments on time, and watch your balances, you can learn how to get a 700 plus credit score in no time.

The Best Medicine That is FREE – Oxygen!

How does our environment affect our Oxygen take?

I was born Santa Monica and raised in Southern California. In the early 1960's, my family moved to San Clemente on the Pacific Ocean located at the very bottom of Orange County. The town's population was under 5,000 and it seemed to be a million miles from Los Angeles with its smog filled skies.
With all the hysteria that currently exists on Global Warming and Polluted Air, let me tell you a personal story to prove to you how far we have come, at least in relation to the air we breathe. Often we do not hear the good news, only the bad. It makes better headlines.

During the summertime in Grade School, without cable television, video games, internet, etc. my friends and I spend most of our days outside riding bikes, hiking, swimming, surfing, fishing or playing sports. In other words, we were constantly exercising and breathing a lot of air. Further, overweight or obese children were a minority in my school. Gee! I wonder why?

This was also the time period before catalytic converters and emission controls on cars. Even with our distance from Los Angeles and Orange County only had a total of about 700,000 people, (today, San Clemente has over 65,000 by itself) I recall numerous Smog Alerts and days when I had breathed so much smog that my lungs hurt and I had to go home and lay down.

Since I can not remember a Smog Alert in 30 years and Orange County, by itself, now with over 3,000,000 people, it is obvious that we have made incredible progress in cleaning our air. Unfortunately, political agendas have a tendency of hiding the truth from the public. I am not saying we do not have work to do, but let's celebrate the progress we have made.

That said, it is true that combustion, respiration, deforestation, and man-made processes have reduced Oxygen levels in our air. Further, any big city is going to have some levels of pollution floating around that you will breathe on any given day. And not only are we breathing pollution from the outside world, but also from the inside one. Indoor pollution and lack of oxygen intake can become an even worse challenge.

In our home, we like to keep the windows open as much as possible because we like to constantly have fresh air moving through the house. I can not stand stale air. I think we have all had the experience of entering a home or building and immediately realizing that the air has not been changed in days.

It's just common sense that when you are stay inside with all the window's and doors closed, you are breathing in and out is what you or others have already breathed in and out. This can lead to Carbon Dioxide buildup which most of us know can be deadly. We are reminded of this at least once a year when some "bright bulb, rocket scientist" that thinks its okay to use his barbeque or Coleman stove to heat up the house. Unfortunately, the consequences are often deadly. So, another free solution to increasing your Oxygen intake is to simply open up your windows and breathe deeply. Just make sure that there is not a huge diesel truck idling close by!

Hey sports fans. Here is another solution if you got the bucks!

A common but expensive technique for increasing oxygenation levels involves the use of an incredibly complex device called a hyperbaric chamber such as those commonly used for treating varying suffering from decompression sickness.

The elevated oxygen saturation's provided by hyperbaric therapies have been proven clinically effective in wound care, gangrene, carbon monoxide poisoning, certain types of cancers, speeding healing in burn patients, treatment of anemia, etc.

The chamber is actually a great big tank in which the patient is placed and then pressurized so that their bodies can absorb more oxygen. The increased ambient pressure elevates the partial pressure of oxygen in the bloodstream and can permit oxygenation levels equivalent to 140% at sea level. The medical community knows that when nothing else will help, Oxygen can come to the rescue and work miracles!

A great many persons, including Hollywood celebrities, routinely use such chambers for increasing their oxygen levels. The 'rich and famous spend thousands of dollars and countless hours in these chambers. But do not you think there has to be an easier, safer and more affordable way to give your body more Oxygen?

As we have discussed, learn to breathe effectively on an ongoing basis, keep the fresh air in your home or work environment and do your best to avoid breathing around known attorneys.

More incredible benefits from Oxygen!

1) Improves chemical imbalances in the body.

2) Relieves headache

3) Accelerates healing time for injuries

4) Lowers blood pressure

5) Relieves stress and anxiety

6) Allows the body to direct enough oxygen to its primary functions without having to draw on valuable reserves.

7) Helps reverse premature aging

8) Relieves symptoms of PMS in women

9) Helps replace damage free radicals

10) Helps neutralize harmful toxins in cells, tissues and bloodstream.

I hope this article will help you create health in your daily life.

More helpful information.

Ebooks
http://www.vocaltrainingwarrior.com/ebooks

You Tube FREE Vocal Training Videos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DfiCEG35T4

Free Newsletter

October Newsletter
http://l.b5z.net/i/u/6106319/f/October_Newsletter.pdf

Thanks for reading. See you next time

Jonathan Morgan Jenkins

Affiliate Programs To Sign Up With

Make money online with affiliate programs can be tough but it can be the most rewarding choice you have ever made. Choosing an affiliate program to start with is the most important part of your online business.

There are so many affiliate programs to choose from. It can be difficult to know which one to sign up with. I personally recommend Clickbank for a comprehensive list of top ranking and highest paying affiliate programs. You will receive a check from Clickbank for your contracts earned twice a month.

If you prefer to receive payments via PayPal, then go to PayDotCom. It is a huge affiliate center with marketplace of products you can promote.

When considering which affiliate programs are best for you, I recommend that you choose one that is specifically related to your site's content and target audience. You can also promote a variety of online digital products as an affiliate. I personally recommend that you choose an affiliate program or products that you are familiar with. This way, it is better for you to recommend these to other. Imagine you are selling something that you know nothing about, you are not going to convince someone to buy it from you.

Personally, I mostly use Clickbank and PayDotCom but I suggest you look around because most companies offered free affiliate programs. Some only allowed affiliates to sell their products after they have purchased it. Whichever websites you are viewing, just scroll down to the bottom and look for affiliate link. Some business owner does not like to display the link in the homepage for everyone to see, so sometimes the affiliate link could have been found in the "about us" page.